Rights of Appearance

A Candidate who is registered in the Law Society of Upper Canada’s Lawyer Licensing Process may appear before Ontario courts and tribunals on certain matters, provided the Candidate is employed under the direct supervision of a licensed lawyer in one of the following three circumstances:

  1. The Candidate is serving under an approved Articles of Clerkship;
  2. The Candidate is enrolled in the Law Practice Program (“LPP”) and is currently engaged in his/her work placement term; or
  3. The Candidate is serving under an approved Supervision Agreement.

Candidates in these three categories have the same rights of appearance. A Candidate appearing before a court or tribunal must identify him/herself as a “student-at-law” or “articling student”, as appropriate.

A law student who is currently enrolled in an accredited Canadian law school may also appear before Ontario courts and tribunals on certain matters, provided the law student is employed under the direct supervision of a licensed lawyer. A law student appearing before a court or tribunal must identify him/herself as a “law student” or “summer student”.

Students who are enrolled in the Integrated Practice Curriculum at the Lakehead University Bora Laskin Faculty of Law (“Lakehead IPC Students”) and are currently completing their work placement semester have the same rights of appearance as those granted to Lawyer Licensing Process Candidates in the three categories above. At all other times, Lakehead IPC Students have the same rights of appearance as other law students who are currently enrolled in an accredited Canadian law school. A Lakehead IPC Student appearing before a court or tribunal must identify him/herself as a “law student”. 

Law students, Lawyer Licensing Process Candidates, and any other law school graduates who are not licensed to practice law are not permitted to appear before Ontario courts or tribunals under any circumstances except under the direct supervision of a licensed lawyer in one of the circumstances described in this document.

Please note that, by law, Ontario courts and tribunals control their own processes. Although these Rights of Appearance set out certain matters for which the Law Society’s governing legislation and By-laws permit Lawyer Licensing Process Candidates and law students to appear, it is always advisable to consult any applicable enabling legislation and rules of practice and/or procedure of the court or tribunal in question, or to contact the court or tribunal in advance to obtain express permission whenever possible.

This document was last revised July 2015.

Rights of Appearance for Lawyer Licensing Process Candidates

Guidelines for Lawyer Licencing Process Candidates Awaiting Call to the Bar

Rights of Appearance for Law Students